There are probably many different reasons why this particular PowerShell error can occur on an Exchange server, but this is what happened in my specific case.
The problem was that when I opened the Exchange management shell on one of my two Exchange 2013 test servers it would fail to connect to the local server, and would instead connect to the other server.
The PowerShell window displayed this error.
VERBOSE: Connecting to E15MB2.exchange2013demo.com.
New-PSSession : [e15mb2.exchange2013demo.com] Processing data from remote server e15mb2.exchange2013demo.com failed
with the following error message: The WinRM Shell client cannot process the request. The shell handle passed to the WSMan Shell function is not valid. The shell handle is valid only when WSManCreateShell function completes successfully. Change the request including a valid shell handle and try again. For more information, see the about_Remote_Troubleshooting Help topic.
At line:1 char:1
+ New-PSSession -ConnectionURI “$connectionUri” -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Excha …
+ CategoryInfo : OpenError: (System.Manageme….RemoteRunspace:RemoteRunspace) [New-PSSession], PSRemotingTransportException
+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : -2144108212,PSSessionOpenFailed
The cause of this error in my specific case was that the SSL certificate was no longer bound to the Exchange Back End website on that Exchange 2013 server.
To fix this, in IIS Manager right-click the Exchange Back End website and click Bindings.
Highlight https and click Edit.
If you see “Not selected” like I did, click on Select.
Choose the certificate you want to bind to the site.
Apply the changes and retry the Exchange management shell. If it connects successfully to the server then you have most likely resolved this issue.